Gender Pay Gap Report

Background

On 6 April 2017 Gender pay gap reporting regulations came into effect, requiring employers in private and voluntary-sector organisations with 250 or more employees to publish data on their gender pay gaps.

Due to the impact of COVID-19, the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) agreed that the enforcement of gender pay gap reporting for 20/21 reporting year will be delayed until 5 October 2021 and no enforcement action will be taken providing employers report by 5 October 2021.

In previous years the University had advised that a Strategic Action Plan would be introduced, which would be aligned to the Athena Swan Charter, due to a change in Senior Management the Charter was not adopted however, the key principles are being reviewed with decisions being taken as to whether to adopt the Charter principles in the future.

Introduction

The gender pay gap differs from equal pay: equal pay observes the pay differences between men and women who carry out the same jobs, similar jobs or work of equal value in the same employment and it is unlawful to pay people so employed unequally because of gender. The gender pay gap, by contrast, shows the differences in the average pay between all men and women across the entire organisation, regardless of the level/grade at which they work; the gender pay gap, therefore, represents the distribution of men and women in different roles at different pay grades.

At The University of Buckingham, we believe in promoting fairness, equality, diversity and inclusion. We value our staff and are committed to ensuring that employees are paid for work that is of equal value while addressing workplace barriers to equality, diversity and inclusion.

The University reports for the fourth year and our latest report covers 759 employees, 467 women (62%) and 292 men (38%) employed during the period ending 5 April 2020.

Summary of Data

The Gender Pay Gap figures are at the snapshot date of 5 April 2020 and it shows the difference between the average (both the mean and the median) earnings of men and women.  This is expressed as a percentage of men’s earnings over women’s earnings.

Gender Pay Gap – gross hourly rate of pay, average earnings of male and female employees at the University of Buckingham on 5 April 2020

MaleFemaleDifference
Mean£30.01£22.3226%
Median£26.08£16.9835%

Gender distribution for pay quartiles

Quartiles (Gross Hourly Rate of Pay)MaleFemale
£0 to £11.4227%73%
£11.43 to £19.2526%74%
£19.26 to £38.2148%52%
£38.22 to £137.8952%48%

The above illustrates the gender distribution across the four quartiles.  Our lower quartiles represent the operational roles including Domestic Services, some Administration roles, part-time and casual workers which attract mostly female candidates.

No bonus payments were paid during the reporting period.

Comparison to previous years

Gender pay gap

2017201820192020
Mean gender pay gapFemale earnings were 21% lowerFemale earnings were 26% lowerFemale earnings were 26% lowerFemale earnings were 26% lower
Median gender pay gapFemale earnings were 37% lowerFemale earnings were 41% lowerFemale earnings were 40% lowerFemale earnings were 35% lower

 

Proportion of males and females in each pay quartile

2017201820192020
Lower QuartileM 45%

F 55%

M 28%

F 72%

M 26%

F 74%

M 27%

F 73%

Lower Middle QuartileM 30%

F 70%

M 32%

F 68%

M 28%

F 72%

M 26%

F 74%

Upper Middle QuartileM 52%

F 48%

M 43%

F 57%

M 45%

F 55%

M 48%

F 52%

Top QuartileM 56%

F 44%

M 57%

F 43%

M 55%

F 45%

M 52%

F 48%

 

Analysis of Data

The Lower Quartile

  • The Lower Quartile has 145 female employees, of which 122 (84%) are part time staff and 53 male employees, of which 43 (81%) are part time staff.
  • There is a 37% difference between males and females employed in the Lower Quartile.
  • Many of the employees within this quartile are part time Casual staff with flexible hours and this type of role tends to attract caregivers within families and a role typically fulfilled by females. However, part time roles are distributed across all pay quartiles.
  • Casual employees are employed on a zero hour contract where the University is under no obligation to offer work and the Casual employee is under no obligation to accept any offer of work.
  • The Lower Quartiles consists of 79 females and 38 males who are Casual staff.

The Lower Middle Quartile

  • The Lower Middle Quartile has 134 female employees, of which 51 (38%) are part time staff and 48 male employees, of which 12 (25%) are part time staff.
  • There is a 36% difference between males and females employed in the Lower Middle Quartile.
  • Roles in the Lower Middle Quartile are predominately administrative and secretarial roles, which are typically fulfilled by females.

The Upper Middle Quartile

  • The Upper Middle Quartile has 99 female employees, of which 37 (37%) are part time staff and 93 male employees, of which 32 (35%) are part time staff.
  • Roles in the Upper Middle Quartile are predominately academic and middle management roles.

The Top Quartile

  • The Top quartile has 89 female employees, of which 82 (92%) are part time staff and 98 male employees, of which 86 (87%) are part time staff.
  • Roles in the Top Quartile are predominately Senior Management, Heads of Department, Deans, Pro Vice-Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Visiting Lecturers.

Visiting Lecturers

  • Visiting Lecturers who are contracted for specific tasks on termly but annual contracts, have a typically higher rate of pay due to their specialist expertise are distorting the Top Quartile.  Their higher-pay and part-time nature distort the Top Quartile in terms of part-time status.
  • There are 78 female Visiting Lecturers in the Top Quartile.
  • There are 75 male Visiting Lecturers in the Top Quartile

Comparison of Data

  • Comparing the 2019 and 2020 data we can see that the gap is closing in Upper Middle Quartile and Top Quartiles.
  • The University has taken important steps to ensure that females are better represented at senior levels, this is now appearing in our report and there has been a positive reduction in the gap. There are 48% of female staff in the Top Quartile in 2020, compared with 45% in 2019.
  • Despite the positive movement, the proportion of females still remains higher than males in the 3 lower quartiles. It is this imbalance that is a significant contributing factor in our Gender Pay Gap.

Key findings

  • The University employs more female staff than male staff and this may distort our Gender Pay Gap data and it is the large number of female staff in roles which are graded within the two lowest pay quartiles that is causing the distortion we see in our Gender Pay Gap Report;
  • There are more female staff employed in part time roles than male staff;
  • Female staff occupy 48% of the highest paid roles and 73% of the lowest paid roles;
  • There are more male staff in senior roles than female staff;
  • There are more female than male Visiting Lecturers employed in the top quartile;
  • With the exception of Visiting Lecturers in the top quartile, part-time roles tend to be less senior roles and are more prevalent in lower-paid roles and;
  • Given some job types seem to attract females, the greatest challenge for the University remains the distribution of male and female staff across different levels and roles.

Steps Taken to Address the Gap

Introduction of online Performance Development Reviews

An online Performance Development Review policy and process has been implemented to assist in the development of staff and their career progression, alongside performance improvement and engagement.

Introduction of a new Academic Promotions process and application form

An academic promotions process and application form has been introduced to ensure that the process is fair, consistent and transparent and that all academic staff have a clearer understanding of the process.

Recruitment

The University is continually reviewing and implementing new ways to improve recruitment processes to ensure a more diverse pool of applicants.  These include:

  • Review of Recruitment Policy
  • Wider external promotion of job opportunities to include better use of social media, LinkedIn, Facebook, Indeed etc.
  • Diverse interview panels will be required for all posts
  • Use of gender-neutral language to be used in job descriptions and job adverts.

Recommendations

Visiting Lecturer Contract and Admin Process

Overhaul the Visiting Lecturer contract and admin process to include agreeing rates and reviewing contractual arrangements to ensure consistency across all Schools within the University.

Flexible Working

The University is seeking to introduce a flexible working culture.  Further work is required to develop flexibility in the workplace for staff at all levels and this will mean that women within the University and more able to progress to earn higher salaries.

Conclusion

A gender pay gap remains evident, this continues to be a result of uneven distribution of men and women across the grading structure, in particular under representation of men in more junior roles.

We are aiming to achieve a greater gender balance across all quartiles through focus on our working practices which include: recruitment, promotions, learning and development and developing a culture of flexible working.

The University is committed to ensuring that its processes, policies and practices are transparent, fair, diverse and inclusive.

2019 Report

View our 2019 report.

2018 Report

Download: University of Buckingham Gender Pay Gap Analysis 2018 (PDF, 943kb)