Gender Pay Gap Report
On 6th April 2017 Gender pay gap reporting regulations came into effect, requiring employers in private and voluntary-sector organisations with 250 or more employees to publish data on their gender pay gaps.
The gender pay gap differs from equal pay: equal pay observes the pay differences between men and women who carry out the same jobs, similar jobs or work of equal value in the same employment and it is unlawful to pay people so employed unequally because of gender. The gender pay gap, by contrast, shows the differences in the average pay between all men and women across the entire organisation, regardless of the level/grade at which they work; the gender pay gap therefore represents the distribution of men and women in different roles at different pay grades.
The University reports for a sixth year and our latest report covers 792 employees, 471 women (60%) and 321 men (40%) employed during the period ending 5th April 2022.
The reporting period is the 6th April 2021 to the 5th April 2022, however, the Gender Pay Gap figures are at the snapshot date of the 5th April 2022.
Summary of Data
The Gender Pay Gap figures are at the snapshot date of the 5th April 2022 and it shows the difference between the average (both the mean and the median) earnings of men and women. This is expressed as a percentage of men’s earnings over women’s earnings.
Gender Pay Gap – snapshot date 5 April 2022
|Gross Hourly Rate of Pay||Male||Female||Difference|
|Quartiles (Gross Hourly Rate of Pay)||Male||Female|
|£0 to £10.00||28%||72%|
|£10.01 to £19.00||28%||72%|
|£19.01 - £36.11||44%||56%|
|£36.12 - £96.23||60%||40%|
The above illustrates the gender distribution across the four quartiles. Our lower quartiles represent the operational roles including Domestic Services, some Administration roles, part-time and Casual workers, which attract mostly female candidates.
Bonus payments paid during the reporting period
|Proportion of Relevant Employees who received a Bonus||0.32%||0.21%|
Comparison to previous years
Gender pay gap
|Mean gender pay gap||Female earnings were 21% lower||Female earnings were 26% lower||Female earnings were 26% lower||Female earnings were 26% lower||Female earnings were 30% lower||Female earnings were 31% lower|
|Median gender pay gap||Female earnings were 37% lower||Female earnings were 41% lower||Female earnings were 40% lower||Female earnings were 35% lower||Female earnings were 41% lower||Female earnings were 41% lower|
Proportion of males and females in each pay quartile
|Lower Quartile||M 45%|
|Lower Middle Quartile||M 30%|
|Upper Middle Quartile||M 52%|
|Top Quartile||M 56%|
Following the completion of the Change Management Plan (CMP) in the first part of 2021, the new University structure was implemented from the 1st April 2021 and the key findings are as follows:
- Comparing the 2020 and 2021 data, we can see that the gap is starting to close in Lower Middle Quartile.
- We achieved a 50/50% split in the Upper Middle Quartile.
- The gap has grown in the Lower Quartile and the Top Quartile.
- The proportion of females remains higher than males in the two lower quartiles.
- The Mean gender pay gap increased by 4%.
- The Median gender pay gap increased by 6%.
The 2021 Gender Pay Gap data shows the following:
- The percentage of males reduced by 4% and females increased by 4% in the Lower Quartile.
- The percentage of males increased by 4% and females reduced by 4% in the Lower Middle Quartile.
- The percentage of males increased by 2% and females reduced by 2% in the Upper Middle Quartile.
- The percentage of males increased by 5% and females reduced by 5% in the Top Quartile.
422 post holders were in place prior to the end of the CMP consultation process. Upon completion of the CMP consultation process, the voluntary severance and compulsory redundancy figures are as follows:
- 14 applications for voluntary severance were agreed
- 2 of these were men and 12 women
- Following agreement of voluntary severance, 51 people remained at risk of redundancy
- Of these, 14 were made redundant on a compulsory basis
- Of the 14 compulsory redundancies, 6 were men and 8 were women
The tables below detail the voluntary severance and compulsory redundancies in each of the quartiles:
Redundancies – Total: 14
|Lower Middle Quartile||0||2|
|Upper Middle Quartile||4||4|
Voluntary Severance - Total: 14
|Lower Middle Quartile||0||9|
|Upper Middle Quartile||1||1|
Analysis of 2022 Data
The Lower Quartile
- The Lower Quartile has 144 female employees, of which 136 (94%) are part time staff and 54 male employees, of which 46 (85%) are part time staff.
- Many of the employees within this quartile are part time Casual staff with flexible hours and this type of role tends to attract caregivers within families and a role typically fulfilled by females. However, part-time roles are distributed across all pay quartiles.
- Casual employees are employed on a zero hour contract where the University is under no obligation to offer work and the Casual employee is under no obligation to accept any offer of work.
- The Lower Quartiles consists of 115 females and 45 males who are Casual staff.
The Lower Middle Quartile
- The Lower Middle Quartile has 139 female employees, of which 47 (33%) are part time staff and 56 male employees, of which 12 (21%) are part time staff.
- Roles in the Lower Middle Quartile are predominately Administrative and Secretarial roles, which are typically fulfilled by females.
The Upper Middle Quartile
- The Upper Middle Quartile has 166 female employees, of which 98 (59%) are part time staff and 145 male employees, of which 94 (64%) are part time staff.
- Roles in the Upper Middle Quartile are predominately Academic and Middle Management roles.
The Top Quartile
- The Top Quartile has 22 female employees, of which 16 (72 %) are part time staff and 66 male employees, of which 52 (78%) are part time staff.
- Roles in the Top Quartile are predominately Senior Management, Heads of Department, Deans, Pro Vice-Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Visiting Lecturers.
- Visiting Lecturers who are contracted for specific tasks on termly but annual contracts, have a typically higher rate of pay due to their specialist expertise are distorting the Top Quartile. Their higher pay and part-time nature distort the Top Quartile in terms of part-time status.
- There are 13 female Visiting Lecturers in the Top Quartile.
- There are 10 male Visiting Lecturers in the Top Quartile.
Comparison of Data
- Comparing the 2021 and 2022 data, we can see that the gap is starting to close in the Lower Quartile.
- The proportionate gap has grown in the Lower Middle Quartile, the Upper Middle Quartile and the Top Quartile.
- The proportion of females remains higher than males in the three lower quartiles.
- The Mean gender pay gap has increased by 1%.
- The Median gender pay gap has remained the same.
- The University employs more female staff than male staff and this may distort our Gender Pay Gap data and it is the large number of female staff in roles which are graded within the three lowest pay quartiles that is causing the distortion we see in our Gender Pay Gap Report;
- Female staff occupy 40% of the highest paid roles and 72% of the lowest paid roles;
- Male staff occupy 60% of the highest paid roles and 28% of the lowest paid roles;
- There are more male staff in the most senior roles than female staff;
- There are more female than male Visiting Lecturers employed in the Top Quartile;
- With the exception of Visiting Lecturers in the Top Quartile, part-time roles tend to be less senior roles and are more prevalent in lower paid roles and;
- Given some job types seem to attract females, the greatest challenge for the University remains the distribution of male and female staff across different levels and roles
Steps Taken to Address the Gap
Performance Development Reviews
Post COVID, Performance Development Reviews have been resumed to assist in the development of staff and their career progression, alongside performance improvement and engagement.
Academic Promotions Process
Post COVID, the Academic Promotions Process has been resumed.
The University has continued to review and implement new ways to improve recruitment processes to ensure a more diverse pool of applicants.
The University has adapted to a more flexible way of working.
To supplement the University’s approach to flexible working, a formal Hybrid Working Policy was introduced to acknowledge the importance for employees in achieving a work life balance and that flexible working gives employees the ability to manage their personal and working life.
The needs and preferences of individual employees are balanced with the requirements of individual jobs, team working and maintaining a vibrant University community.
Reintroduce the HR User Group
The HR User Group has been reintroduced to provide strategic advice on the University’s HR related policies and procedures, act as staff representatives for staff forums and consultation purposes and to assist the HR Department with training of new policies and procedures.
Conduct a Staff Survey
A staff survey has been conducted to capture staff feedback. This has allowed the University to establish what our staff think the University is doing well and areas that they think can be improved.
The HR User Group has been focusing on the results of the staff survey and making improvements where appropriate.
Recommendations this year
Introduction of Corporate and Professional Services Promotions Criteria and Promotions Process
Introduce a Corporate and Professional Services Staff promotions process with criteria to ensure that the process is fair, consistent and transparent and that all corporate and professional services staff have a clear understanding of the process.
Review and Update Academic Promotions Criteria and Application Form
Review and update the Academic Promotions Criteria and Application Form to ensure that the process is fair, consistent and transparent and that all academic staff have a clearer understanding of the process.
A formal job evaluation process is to be introduced to objectively measure the different elements of a job against the same criteria using a consistent set of factors. This measurement will then allow all of the jobs to be equitably placed in a rank order according to their size, thereby producing a hierarchy of jobs that provides a basis for a fair pay and grading structure. The job evaluation tool that the University will use is HERA. Using HERA can help ensure:
- A fair, equitable and transparent process for comparing relative size of all in-scope jobs within the University.
- A clear demonstration of the principle of equal pay for work of equal value.
- The promotion of fairness and equality more generally.
Review Visiting Lecturer Rates
A review of the Visiting Lecturer hourly rates is to be undertaken.
Introduction of Performance Related Pay
Performance related pay is being considered in the aim of objectively linking salary progression to an assessment of individual performance.
The gap also remains because of the uneven distribution of men and women across the grading structure, in particular under representation of men in more junior roles and women in more senior roles.
Whilst there is a disproportionate representation of women in posts graded in the lower
quartiles, as can be seen in the actions above, efforts are being taken forward to increase the representation of women at senior levels, which will continue to emerge over time.
We are aiming to achieve a greater gender balance across all quartiles through focus on our working practices, which include: recruitment, promotions, learning and development, job and pay evaluation and the potential introduction of the performance related pay.
Download: University of Buckingham Gender Pay Gap Analysis 2018 (PDF, 943kb)