The Institute for Ethical AI in Education

Interim Report

The Institute launched its Interim Report on 25th February at The House of Lords, and published a provisional guidance toolkit for educational institutions using AI at the same time. The report outlines the projected risks and benefits of AI in education, and sets out the steps that need to be taken to develop a respected and effective ethical framework, which will promote beneficial uses of AI whilst also safeguarding learners against the harms of unethical AI.

Key Documents

The IEAIED will meet and study evidence and will produce a final report in 2021.

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Mission

The IEAIED will work to develop frameworks and mechanisms to help ensure that the use of AI across education is designed and deployed ethically. We are achieving this by engaging with a wide range of stakeholders to develop a code of practice that protects the vulnerable and disadvantaged and maximises the benefits of AI across society.

Introduction

To maximise the benefit that AI could bring to education, we must ensure that AI technologies, practices and proponents are aligned with the moral values and ethical principles of a ‘Good AI Society’ (Floridi, 2018). Ethics must be ‘designed in’ to every aspect of AI in education and training from the inception of an idea for an AI product or service to the scaled adoption of that AI within society. Educational institutions and practitioners are responsible for the pedagogical, emotional, physical and moral wellbeing of their students, employees, and the ethical context of these responsibilities with respect to the fast-approaching AI revolution needs much more careful attention.

The IEAIED will identify the assumptions about human behaviour and intelligence that underlie current AI development and innovation. We will consider how social values are currently embedded and manifested in AI design. How ethical frameworks can in future be grounded on responsible innovation in all applications of educational AI. We will also examine how AI in education avoids prioritising undesirable aspects of learning at the expense of other beneficial aspects, which could fundamentally distort the process of learning, and human development.

Why is the Institute for Ethical AI in Education Needed?

We believe with Stephen Hawking, 2018, that AI, in general, is going to be either the best thing for humanity or the worst thing that has ever happened. We believe we are putting insufficient thought and effort into the ethical applications of AI in general. This is particularly the case in education where remarkably little thought has been put in by government, parliament, universities, schools and educational bodies. The running has been made by the technology companies, for whom ethical and broader societal implications are less important than the bottom line.

The growing volume and diversity of data generated raises ethical concerns about what happens to that data, who owns it, who uses it, for what purposes, and who is accountable for its interpretation and exploitation. Users’ rights to self-determination, ownership and privacy along with the identity of and accountability by anyone who may affect those rights are key considerations that are universally applicable to all types of data generated.

This requires more than GDPR and other form of privacy and data protection.

These considerations are of particular pertinence to systems that use AI in the support of teaching and/or learning, because such systems frequently aim to effectuate a lasting change on their users, e.g. through recommendations, persuasion or feedback, to engender personal relationships between humans and machines, e.g. through use of conversational or emotion-enabled agents, or even to develop a degree of dependency (intrinsic motivation), e.g. through rewards and levels in games. In the case of technologies developed for education (including ITSs, MOOCs, Learning Analytics, socio-cognitive interventions), the explicit ambition is to achieve positive life-long changes that are measurable at behavioural, psychological and, increasingly, deep neural levels. However, as yet, the methods, technologies and ideologies that underpin the generation, analysis and exploitation of interactive systems’ data have not been subject to sufficient systematic and interdisciplinary scrutiny to ensure our full understanding of their potential effects on users, of the associated ethical issues and risks against which we must safeguard.

Data is never just ‘raw’. The decision to collect data is an action based upon a judgement that the data is of value. Data is a value driven entity in its own right and the decisions to collect it must be grounded in sound ethical principles.

The world of AI in Education beyond academic research, where ethical approval must be sought and granted, is the ‘wild west’, with no consistent or effective governance. Both advertently and inadvertently businesses are taking advantage of people in the way that they are building, implementing and rolling out AI.

We need to guard against inappropriate or biased data collection, analysis or interpretation, e.g. as employed in user modelling, provides the basis for systems’ interactive capabilities. By their very nature interpretations have to involve a commitment to particular theoretical or ideological perspectives, e.g. when data is translated into knowledge representations, and these are also inevitably subjective and debatable in nature.

Lack of input to the development of AI for use in Education from those who understand teaching and learning.

False protection promises from large technology companies who wish to constrain users to their particular brand of technology.

Academics are required to seek and gain ethical clearance for anything and everything they do that involves people: they must demonstrate that they will do not harm – this must be extended to anyone and everyone working in education.

Data without context is not merely meaningless, it is potentially dangerous. We will therefore demand that the interpretation of data can only be conducted with data that has been appropriately contextualised.

Advisory Council

Dr Julian Baggini, British philosopher, author and co-founder of The Philosophers’ Magazine was awarded a PhD from University College London, for a thesis on the philosophy of personal identity in 1996. He has since written several books on philosophy and has been widely published in outlets such as the Guardian, the Financial Times, Prospect, and the New Statesman. He has written for the think tanks The Institute of Public Policy Research and Demos.

Geoff Barton has been General Secretary of ASCL since April 2017. He is a founding fellow of the English Association and became a ‘Leading Thinker’ for the National Education Trust in 2006. Before serving as ASCL General Secretary, he held the position of Chair of its Pedagogy Committee. He is a Patron of the English and Media Centre. Barton is an active commentator on education and has written for a range of publications including the Times Educational Supplement, East Anglian Daily Times, and Bury Free Press. Barton has worked extensively in school leadership including advising on the initial teacher training programme as Visiting Tutor at York University and contributed to a similar programme at Cambridge University.

Margaret A. Boden OBE ScD FBA is Research Professor of Cognitive Science, University of Sussex, where she helped develop the world’s first academic programme combining AI and cognitive science. She is a Fellow of the British Academy, the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (and its British and European equivalents), the Cognitive Science Society, and the Academia Europaea. She received the ACM-AAAI Allen Newell Award for 2017, a Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society for Artificial Life, and the Covey Prize from the International Association for Computing and Philosophy. Her work has been translated into twenty languages. She wrote the world’s first book on AI as a whole (Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man: 1977), and her latest book is Artificial Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction (2018). In 2019, she will publish a collection of essays on computer art, co-authored with the pioneering computer artist Ernest Edmonds: From Fingers to Digits: Towards an Electronic Aesthetic.

Fiona Boulton has had a remarkable career in school leadership and has served as Headmistress of Guildford High School since 2002, after previously serving as Deputy Head for five years. Her commitment to educational progress is evident in Guildford’s designation as a Teaching School in 2013. The school is a member of United Learning and leads the Teaching School Alliance which comprises 42 academies and 14 independent schools. Boulton has been recognised as a National Leader of Education since 2013.

Sherry Coutu holds a BA from the University of British Columbia, an MSc in Economics from the London School of Economics, and an MBA from Harvard Business School. As an entrepreneur, Coutu founded Interactive Investor International in 1994, which she ran until 2000. As an angel investor, she has partnered with hundreds of entrepreneurs specialising in consumer internet, information services and education. She has worked with LoveFilm and Zoopla and her latest venture, Founders4Schools, encourages student initiative in business. The project highlights Coutu’s dedication to nurturing young entrepreneurship and keen knowledge of data trends. Founders4Schools informs teachers of skills gaps to target based on algorithmic analysis of labour-market adjustments.

Avnish’s career in education began 26 years ago, progressing to her current position as the Headteacher of an outstanding inner-city school in Birmingham. Having previously held the position of Assistant Head- and eventually Head of School – at an outstanding academy within a successful MAT, she has developed her leadership skills within innovative and progressive educational establishments which have nurtured her desire for embracing the ‘bigger picture’ of education as a force for good within society. She sees the potential of school in the future as being a positive frontline for changes in attitudes to the use of AI and the question of safety and risk management.

Billy Downie is Headteacher of The Streetly Academy, Birmingham. The School has developed an international reputation for the innovative use of technologies to drive school improvement. Streetly is one of only 3 UK based Google Reference Schools in the Secondary sector, offering a one-to-one Google Chromebook facility to all students. Billy also served as a member of the Advisory Board at Frog Education, working on the use of technologies to develop pedagogy. Billy has delivered training and consultancy on leadership, sport, technologies and data across the UK, Europe, South-East Asia & Australia. As head of a sports college, Billy is also a non-Executive Director of the Youth Sport Trust and a National Leader of Education, previously serving on the Regional School Commissioner’s Headteacher Board. He is also a trustee of an expanding Primary Multi-academy trust.

Vivienne Durham has had an extensive career in school leadership with notable advocacy for high standard education for girls. She has worked at The Haberdashers’ Aske’s School for Girls, Godolphin and Latymer, Guildford High School, and South Hampstead High School GDST. From 2004 to 2015 she was Headteacher at Francis Holland School Regent’s Park. During these years, she oversaw numerous improvements to the school’s facilities and a notable expansion in the school’s roll. She became Chief Executive of The Girls’ Schools Association in 2017. Through this, she works closely with Association members to optimise education for girls.

Joe Fatheree is an award-winning author, educator, and filmmaker. He has received numerous educational awards over the course of his career, including being named one of the Top 10 Teachers in the World in 2016 by the Varkey Foundation as part of the Global Teacher Prize. He was recognized as the Illinois Teacher of the Year in 2007 and the NEA’s National Award for Teaching Excellence in 2009. He served as the Director of Strategic Projects for the National Network of State Teachers of the Year and was a founding board member of an educational policy organization called Advance Illinois. Joe served on a professional development committee for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and a curriculum advisory committee for ITVS/Independent Lens. He is a Varkey Teacher Ambassador and serves on ASCD’s Global Educator Advisory Committee. Joe was one of six teacher leaders chosen to represent the United States at the 2015 International Summit on Teaching in Alberta, Canada. He is one of the founders of the National Coalition for Safe Schools, which is a teacher-led effort to stop extreme acts of violence from occurring at school. His television work has aired nationally on PBS, The Documentary Channel, Hulu, and the Major League Baseball Network. As a producer, he has received three Mid-America Emmy Awards, two for producing and one for writing. He recently co-authored a book entitled, Adventures in Teacher Leadership. Most importantly, he continues to serve as a fulltime teacher where he teaches innovation in a classroom filled with student imagination, creativity, and a desire to change the world.

Social entrepreneur Gi Fernando is co-founder and director of mission-driven business Freeformers which employs a 1:1 model, providing digital skills training to both members of large corporations and young people in the community. His previous successful technology ventures include Techlightenment which was later sold to Experian Plc. Freeformers’ projects such as Reverse Mentoring for CEOs demonstrate Fernando’s keen knowledge of adapting modern business to best benefit both new and established workers as well as the thoughtful integration of AI into existing business systems. He has invested in a range of innovative companies like Citymapper, Playmon, and Technology Will Save Us. In 2017 he was awarded an MBE for services to the Digital Economy and in the same year was named the Asian Achievers Awards’ Entrepreneur of the Year. Fernando’s entrepreneurship and investment are directed by a belief in the increasingly intrinsic relationship between profit and purpose.

Gayle Gorman was appointed as Chief Executive and HMI Chief Inspector of Education in December 2017. Gayle leads Education Scotland’s staff to deliver the enhanced role set out in the Scottish Government’s Next Steps document and leads both the HMIe teams and support teams at Education Scotland. Gayle has previously had the roles of Regional Improvement Lead for the Northern Alliance Improvement Collaborative, Director of Education and Children’s Services with Aberdeen City Council, Director of Learning at Cambridgeshire County Council, and National Senior Director at the National Strategies, in England. In this role, she helped to shape major educational policies at a national level. In her early career, she was a primary teacher, before she became involved in curriculum development, was an Ofsted Inspector, and led a range of projects within the Department of Education (DfE). Gayle is also chair and Trustee of the Gordon Cook Foundation.

Sir Mark Grundy has been associated with Shireland Collegiate Academy for over twenty years starting as Headteacher in 1997 and becoming the Trust CEO in 2016. The Trust currently manages two Primary and two Secondary schools, with a further one of each under construction and further Primary Free Schools opening in 2020. Shireland has a national reputation for innovation around curriculum design and its use of Educational Technology and has a long-standing relationship with Microsoft. Sir Mark works with the DfE as an appointed member of the Regional Headteacher Board as well as advisory work in relation to EdTech and its national development.

Robert Halfon was elected as the Conservative MP for Harlow in 2010. After the 2015 general election, he served in a number of ministerial roles, first as a minister in The Cabinet Office and then as a Minister of State in The Department for Education, where he was responsible for Apprenticeships and Skills. During his time in government, Halfon also served as Deputy Chairman of The Conservative Party. In July 2017 he became the Chair of The Education Select Committee.

Timo Hannay is the Managing Director of School Dash, an education technology company he founded in 2015. Before School Dash, Timo founded and was the Managing Director of Digital Science, which delivers software solutions for scientific research. He has served as the Digital Publishing Director of Nature.com, has been a management consultant at McKinsey & Company and was a journalist for The Economist. Timo graduated from Imperial College with a B.Sc. in Biochemistry and went on to achieve a D.Phil in Neurophysiology from Oxford University. Hannay has been recognised as an innovator in the field of academic publishing, and in 2005 he was awarded the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers award for innovation in publishing. He is currently a non-executive director of Sage Publishing.

Peter Horrocks CBE is a broadcast executive and has held  the position of Vice-Chancellor of The Open University. Having started his  career at the BBC, Peter went on to hold a number of senior roles  including being editor of Newsnight and Panorama, Head of Current  Affairs, Head of Television, Head of the BBC Newsroom, and Head of the  BBC World Service. He also served as Head of the BBC Media Action Board  of Trustees, and has been awarded with Baftas for his Editorship of both  The Power of Nightmares and Newsnight. In 2015, Peter Horrocks became  Vice-Chancellor of The Open University and served in the role until 2018.

Future-Ready Skills Lead, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Microsoft corporation

Alexa works across the region to drive student skills development, from primary through to higher education. Her role in future-ready skills aims to drive both the soft skills that students need to succeed in work and life, as well as develop deep STEM and technical competences.

Alexa has advised governments in more than 100 countries across the world in digital transformation in education. She previously led the global strategy at Microsoft for engaging and support education system leaders as they evolve their school systems, and was formerly EMEA Director of Policy, Teaching and Learning, focusing on supporting national device deployments across the region.

Prior to Microsoft, she was Senior Business Development Manager at European Schoolnet, the network of 30 Ministries of Education in Europe and think tank in use of technology to transform education. At Schoolnet, she engaged 60 million people across Europe through awareness raising campaigns on digital skills. She worked closely with governments, companies, and the European Commission on ICT in education, STEM education and sustainability education.

Previously she consulted for UNESCO Asia-Pacific Bureau for Education, UNESCO International Institute of Educational Planning, and the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, and Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. Alexa has been an advisor and committee member for the Hewlett Packard STEM+ Catalyst, European Centre for Women and Technology, European e-Skills Association, All Digital and the EDUCATE ed-tech accelerator.

Jim Knight was elected as the Labour Member of Parliament for South Dorset in 2001 and served in this role until 2010. He held a number of ministerial roles, including that of Minister of State for Schools, between 2006 and 2009. Lord Jim Knight is now a life peer. In addition to his work in the House of Lords, Lord Knight is The Chief Education adviser at TES Global- having also been the Managing Director of online learning, at TES- he is the chair and founder of XRapid Group, and he is a visiting professor at London Knowledge Lab, which is based at The Institute of Education.

Sonia Livingstone DPhil (Oxon), FBA, FBPS, FAcSS, FRSA, OBE is a professor in the ​Department of Media and Communications​ at the London School of Economics and Political Science. She researches media audiences, especially children’s and young people’s risks and opportunities, media literacy, and rights in the digital environment, and has published 20 books including “​The Class: Living and Learning in the Digital Age​” (New York University Press, with Julian Sefton-Green). Her forthcoming book is Parenting for a Digital Future: How hopes and fears about technology shape children’s lives (Oxford University Press, with Alicia Blum-Ross. She currently directs the projects “​Children’s Data and Privacy Online​,” “​Global Kids Online​”​ (with UNICEF) and “​Parenting for a Digital Future​”​, and she is Deputy Director of the UKRI-funded “​Nurture Network​.” Since founding the 33 country ​EU Kids Online research network, Sonia has advised the UK government, European
Commission, European Parliament, Council of Europe, OECD and UNICEF, among others, on children’s internet risks, safety, media literacy and rights in digital environments. She blogs at ​www.parenting.digital​. See www.sonialivingstone.net​ and on Twitter (@Livingstone_S).

Ann Mroz has been a strategic member of the Times Higher Education (THE) Supplement since 1994 when she joined as a sub-editor. From there she worked up to appointment as the THE editor in 2008. In 2012, she became digital publishing director of TES Resources where she was quintessential to the transition from newspaper supplement to magazine. In September 2013 she became TES’s editor and the company’s digital publishing director. She is a trustee for the charity Shine and a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. She sits on the board of the Education Endowment Foundation, the Princeton University Press European advisory board, the Education Policy Institute, and Sutton Trust, an education advisory group.

As Managing Director for Big Change, Essie North has sought positive change for the next generation. Big Change provides grants to innovative thinkers who are creating ways to ensure young people are set up to thrive. She is a qualified business coach with a background in psychology and 10 years experience in CEB. Before joining the organisation in 2014, North worked with socially motivated organisations and entrepreneurs. Throughout her career, North has been dedicated to finding new, meaningful ways to help people thrive.

Ndidi Okezie is Director of Digital and Customer Voice at Pearson. While working in two schools in London, she went from trainee English teacher to assistant principal in ten years. She is a Teach First Ambassador alumna. Okezie is committed to empowering school leadership in order to bring excellent education to as many students as possible. She demonstrated this while serving as Executive Director of Delivery at Teach First where she oversaw Teach First’s programmatic efforts.

Sir Tim O’Shea was the Vice-Chancellor and Principal of the University of Edinburgh from 2002 to 2018. He previously worked as a researcher in the Computer Science Department of the University of Texas at Austin, the Bionics Research Lab at the University of Edinburgh and the Systems Concepts Lab, Xerox PARC, California. His time at the Open University includes founding the Computers and Learning Research Group in 1978, being appointed to personal Chair in Information Technology and Education in 1986, then Pro-Vice-Chancellor in 1993. He has served as Universities Scotland’s Vice Convener from 2009 to 2012, as the Chair of Jisc from 2009 to 2013, as Chair to the Advisory Committee for the ESRC / EPSRC’s Technology Enhanced Learning Research Programme from 2009 to 2013, and as Deputy President of the French Government’s Initiatives d’Excellence en Formations Innovantes from 2011 to 2012. His academic work on computer-based learning, artificial intelligence, and mathematics education includes 10 books, 22 BBC television programmes and over 100 journal articles.

Lord David Putnam is the Chair of Atticus Education. Founded in 2012, the online education venture provides seminars to students globally. As a member of the House of Lords, Putnam is an advocate for digital skills and a variety of educational and environmental issues. He worked as an independent film producer for thirty years and his projects, including Chariots of Fire, Local Hero, and Midnight Express, received numerous accolades from the Golden Globes, Oscars, BAFTAs and the Palme D’Or at Cannes. He was Chairman and CEO of Columbia Pictures from 1986 to 1988 and BAFTA Vice President and Chair of Trustees from 1994 to 2004. He is a Fellow of both the BAFTAs and the British Film Institute. After retiring from film production in 1998, Lord Putnam focused on public policy in education, environment, and communication including an appointment to the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the Draft Climate Change Bill. In 1982 he was awarded a CBE, knighthood in 1995, and in 1997 was appointed to the House of Lords. In 2006 he became a Commander of the French Chevalier of the Order of Arts and Letters. Lord Putnam’s commitment to cultural policy extends to his appointment as the Prime Minister’s Trade and Cultural Envoy to Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Burma in 2012 and Presidency of UNICEF UK from 2002 to 2009.

Dr Saima Rana is state educated and has spent her professional life working to improve state education. Dr Rana is Principal of Westminster Academy, serving one of the most deprived areas in the country where 44% of children are in poverty. 46% of Westminster Academy students have ‘ever’ been eligible for free school meals, 51% of students are pupil premium and 76% of students speak English as an additional language. 20% of students have SEND. With a background in school improvement in inner-city schools, and a PhD in IT in Education, Dr Rana has worked in inner-city London schools with high deprivation indicators throughout her career to combine traditional school improvement techniques with a commitment to collaboration between the local community and businesses in order to accelerate regeneration and standards. Dr Rana specialises in Secondary School Educational Policy, ICT, Globalisation, the Knowledge and Digital Economy. She was an ICT Mark Assessor and examiner for NAACE and was on the working party developing the original Becta/Ofsted ICT Mark and Assessment for Learning reform group. She has presented academic papers on Policy, ICT, Globalisation and Secondary Education at the Institute of Education and Trinity College, Dublin, The Knowledge Lab as well as at international conferences in both Europe and the USA. Dr Rana is also a member of the following boards: The Duke of York Inspiring Digital Enterprise Award (iDEA), International Baccalaureate Schools and Colleges Association (ISBCA), Paddington Development Trust (PDT), and Mosaic Community Trust (MCT).

Geraint Rees is Dean of the UCL Faculty of Life Sciences. He has also served as the Director of the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience (2009-2014), and the Deputy Head of the Faculty of Brain Sciences at UCL (2011-2014). His achievements in academia have led to him receiving the Royal Society Francis Crick medal and have resulted in his election to the Academy of Medical Sciences. His academic research primarily focuses on the neural mechanisms that underlie human consciousness, and he has lead a research group that investigated this topic at the ICN and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. Geraint is also part of the Executive Team of the Francis Crick Institute, and he is on the board of Directors of Imanova.

Jacqueline de Rojas is the President of techUK and chair of the Digital Leaders Board. De Rojas sits on the government’s Digital Economy Council and is a supporter of the University Technical College in Newcastle. She is also a Non-Executive Director on the boards of Rightmove plc, Costain plc, and AO World plc. She is the co-chair at the Institute of Coding, advises the board of Accelerate-Her, and supports the Girlguiding Association for Technology Transformation. Her accolades include: ‘Computer Weekly’s Most Influential Woman in IT 2015’, Debretts’ 2016 500 People of Influence – Digital & Social, Europe’s Inspiring Fifty Most Inspiring Female Role Models for 2017, the Catherine Variety Award for Science and Technology which she won in 2017, and the Women in Tech Award for Advocate of the Year in 2018. Jacqueline was awarded CBE for Services to International Trade in Technology in 2018.

Mark S. Steed has spent his career working in top independent schools both in the UK and Overseas.

In the UK he worked as a Teacher, Head of Department, and Boarding Housemaster prior to his two senior leaderships roles as Headmaster of Kelly College in Devon; and then as Principal of the Berkhamsted Schools Group. He moved abroad in September 2015 to be Director of JESS, Dubai, before moving to Hong Kong in September 2019 to take up the reins as the Principal and CEO of Kellett School. 

Mark has degrees from Cambridge and Nottingham Universities and from Ashridge-Hult Business School where he researched ‘Alternative Business models for Secondary Schooling’. He has a particular interest in how new technologies can be used in education and chaired the UK Independent Schools Council IT Strategy Group from 2007 to 2015. 

Mark is a regular contributor to Tes writing about international education and a range of other educational and IT issues. He is active on twitter  @independenthead and @Kellett_CEO and on his blog http://independenthead.blogspot.com

Roger Taylor is chair of the Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation. He has worked as an entrepreneur, a regulator and a writer. He has argued for a rebalancing of control over data and information towards citizens and civil society. He is chair of Ofqual, the qualifications regulator and a member of the advisory panel to Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation. His has written two books: God Bless the NHS (Faber & Faber (2014) and Transparency and the Open Society (Policy Press 2016). He co-founded Dr Foster which pioneered the use of public data to provide independent ratings of healthcare. He worked as a correspondent for the Financial Times in the UK and the US and, before that, as a researcher for the Consumers’ Association.

Alan Winfield received his PhD in Electronic Engineering in 1992 form the University of Hull after which he went on to co-found and lead APD Communications Ltd. He took up an appointment at the University of the West of England in 1992 where he is now Professor of Robot Ethics. He is also a Visiting Professor at the University of York. Winfield’s work in robotics extends to the co-founding of the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, with a focus in cognitive robotics. Winfield has already worked extensively in assessing the ethical integration of robotic technology. As a member of the British Standards Institute, he helped draft BS 8611: Guide to the Ethical Design of Robots and Robotic Systems. He is chair of the General Principles Committee of the IEEE Global Initiative on Ethical Considerations in the Design of Autonomous Systems. He lectures on robotics to both the academic and public sectors. His published work includes ‘Robotics: A Very Short Introduction’ (Oxford University Press, 2012).

Dr Nick Saville is Director of the Research and Thought Leadership Group for Cambridge Assessment English (Part of the University of Cambridge). He is Secretary-General of the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE), on the Board of Trustees for The International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF), on the Management Committee of the Institute for Automated Language Teaching and Assessment (ALTA) (University of Cambridge), and a visiting professor for the ICT-Assisted Interpreter Training Project at Xiamen University, China. He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Institute for Ethical AI in Education.

Nick is a consultant for European institutions including the Council of Europe, the European Parliament & the EU Commission. In this capacity he has been involved in the development of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) since its inception, and more recently was an invited Expert for the development and validation of the Companion Volume. He was a founding associate editor of the journal Language Assessment Quarterly and is currently joint editor of the Studies in Language Testing (SiLT, CUP), previously with the late Prof Cyril Weir, and editor of the English Profile Studies series (EPS, CUP).  His current research interests include assessment and learning in the digital age; the use of ethical AI; language policy and multilingualism; the CEFR; and Learning Oriented Assessment (LOA) for which he has co-authored a volume in the SiLT series.

Kate is Deputy CEO at Childnet International, a charity with a mission to work in partnership with others to help make the internet a great and safe place for children.

Childnet works with children and young people, as well as parents, carers, teachers and professionals, helping to equip them to stay safe online and ensuring young people’s voices are heard by policy makers and internet industry. Childnet is a partner in the UK Safer Internet Centre, co-ordinating Safer Internet Day in the UK; this is a major part of Kate’s work, as well as directing programmes and supporting policy and communications work.

Kate’s career has focused on increasing young people’s agency to change the world around them for the better. After starting as a secondary school teacher in London, Kate worked in local government before taking an MSc in Development Studies and leading education and school engagement programmes at international NGOs such as Comic Relief, the Marine Stewardship Council and Fairtrade.

International Advisory Group

Andreas Schleicher is Director for Education and Skills at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). He initiated and oversees the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and other international instruments that have created a global platform for policy-makers, researchers and educators across nations and cultures to innovate and transform educational policies and practices.


He has worked for over 20 years with ministers and education leaders around the world to improve quality and equity in education. Former U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan said that Schleicher “understands the global issues and challenges as well as or better than anyone I’ve met, and he tells me the truth” (The Atlantic, July 11). Former UK Secretary of State Michael Gove called Schleicher “the most important man in English education” – even though he is German and lives in France.


Before joining the OECD, he was Director for Analysis at the International Association for Educational Achievement (IEA). He studied Physics in Germany and received a degree in Mathematics and Statistics in Australia. He is the recipient of numerous honours and awards, including the “Theodor Heuss” prize, awarded in the name of the first president of the Federal Republic of Germany for “exemplary democratic engagement”. He holds an honorary Professorship at the University of Heidelberg.

Cristina is a populizer, a social entrepreneur and an active citizen with the aim to impact society positively.


After a 10 years entrepreneurial success story in the pre-paid services market, in 2016 she sold the company she co-founded in 2006 in one of the most important exits in Italy in the last 10 years.
She immediately started planning a new impactful mission and the same year she created a social enterprise, Impactscool, feeling the urge to disseminate innovation, technology and future critical thinking as a mean to face the new challenges of our time.


Through education and ethical reflection about possible futures and the ethics of emerging technologies, Cristina is willing to give students, citizens and organizations, the tools to responsibly shape the most desirable future for society and individuals.
Her book Benvenuti nel 2050 (EGEA 2019) explores possible future scenarios and their impacts on our everyday life (English version available in early 2020 – Destination 2050 (BUP 2020)).


Her organization’s motto is “the future is open source”: shaped together and accessible to everyone.


Thanks to the work done with Impactscool and to her previous experiences Cristina has been invited as a Young Global Leader of the World Economic Forum (2019-2024) in 2019 and the EYL40 community in 2020.

Dr David Christie joined UAC as Managing Director in March 2015. He has a leadership background in both the tertiary education and commercial sectors.


Following the completion of his PhD, Dr Christie enjoyed a number of years in Germany and Singapore in research and business roles with BASF, the world’s largest chemical company. In Germany he led a team undertaking fundamental research and in Singapore led a business unit across Asia-Pacific. Subsequently, he joined the University of Wollongong as Academic Registrar, and over the past few years he has also gained experience with the federal government in leadership roles in research administration, international education and higher education. Dr Christie’s most recent assignment prior to his current role was leading the enterprise architecture and strategy functions at Open Universities Australia.


In 2016, Dr Christie was elected chair of the national body representing state and territory admissions centres. Dr Christie has also been a member of various education sector representative bodies established by federal and state governments.

HAGIT MESSER-YARON received the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Tel Aviv University (TAU), ISRAEL, and after a post-doctoral fellowship at Yale University, she joined the faculty of Engineering at Tel Aviv University in 1986, where she is The Kranzberg Chair Professor in Signal Processing at the school of Electrical Engineering. On 2000-3 she has been on leave from TAU, serving as the Chief Scientist at the Ministry of Science. After returning to TAU she was the head of the Porter school of environmental studies (2004-6), and the Vice President for Research and Development (2006-8). Then, she has been the President of the Open University (2008-13), and from Oct. 2013 till January 2016 she has served as the Vice Chair of the Council of Higher Education, Israel. She is also a co-founder of ClimaCell.

Hagit Messer-Yaron, Life Fellow of the IEEE, is an active researcher in the field of Statistical Signal Processing, with applications to environmental monitoring. She is also interested in various aspects of higher education and science policy, including science-society interplay, women in science and technology, and commercialization of academic research. Prof. Messer-Yaron is a member of COMEST, UNESCO committee for ethics in Science and Technology, and a member of the Executive Committee of the IEEE Global Initiative for Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Systems.

Illah R. Nourbakhsh is K&L Gates Professor of Ethics and Computational Technologies at Carnegie Mellon University and director of the Community Robotics, Education and Technology Empowerment Lab. He is Associate Director for Faculty at the Robotics Institute. He obtained his PhD in Computer Science from Stanford University. Illah is currently serving as CEO of Airviz Inc., which is dedicated to global empowerment regarding air quality. In 2009 the National Academy of Sciences named him a Kavli Fellow. In 2013 he was inducted into the June Harless West Virginia Hall of Fame. He was previously Robotics Group Lead for NASA/Ames during the MER landings. In 2019 he was named a Hastings Fellow. He has co-authored textbooks and popular literature, including Robot Futures. He is a trustee of the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation, a trustee of Winchester Thurston School and Chairman of the Southwestern Pennsylvania Environmental Health Project. He is a World Economic Forum Global Steward and a senior advisor to The Future Society, Harvard Kennedy School, as well as RoboGlobal.

José Escamilla is the Director of TecLabs – Learning Reimagined, Tecnologico de Monterrey disruptive innovation unit whose objective is finding out how higher education will be in 2030. TecLabs is responsible for articulating the research, innovation, and entrepreneurship processes for Educational Innovation in Tecnologico de Monterrey. He was the Dean of the Graduate School of Education. He has worked in the use of technologies in educational, artificial intelligence in education and other educational innovation projects. He holds a Computer Science Engineering Degree from Tecnologico de Monterrey, and a Ph.D. in Artificial Intelligence from Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble.

He is chair of the Global Higher Education and Research (GHEAR) Global Challenge Steering Group for The Worldwide Universities Network. He is a member of the International advisory committee of the Institute for Ethical AI in Education and the Digital Credentials Leadership Council. He is active in his Edutrends podcast (https://observatory.tec.mx/edutrendspodcast

Dr Nancy Law is a professor in the Division of Information Technology in Education, Faculty of Education at the University of Hong Kong. She served as the Founding Director for the Centre for Information Technology in Education (CITE) for 15 years from 1998. She also led the Science of Learning Strategic Research Theme at the University of Hong Kong. She is a Fellow of the International Society of the Learning Sciences, and is known globally for her strong record and expertise in the integration of digital technology in learning and teaching to promote student-centred pedagogical innovations. She received a Humanities and Social Sciences Prestigious Fellowship Scheme Award by the HKSAR Research Grants Council in 2014 in recognition of her research in scalability of technology-enhanced learning innovations. She is currently spearheading large projects in two related areas: implementation and refinement of multilevel network models of innovation as sociotechnical co-evolution, and investigation of students’ development as digital citizens from childhood to early adulthood. She has served on a number of policy advisory boards/working groups related to ICT in education for the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong SAR government and other community, government groups and institutions. She has also been contributing as expert consultant to the European Commission, UNESCO and OECD on various aspects of technology-enhanced learning.

Violetta Cavalli-Sforza is Associate Professor of Computer Science at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, where she has taught since 2008. She holds a B.S. and a M.S. in Civil Engineering (1980) and a M.S. in Computer Science-Computer Engineering (1985) from Stanford University, plus a Ph.D. in Intelligent Systems from the University of Pittsburgh (1998) focused on computer-assisted instruction. She has been a staff member (1994-1999) and visiting researcher (2003-2007) at Carnegie Mellon University in machine translation, an assistant professor at San Francisco State University (2000-2002), and a consultant for the Linguistic Data Consortium on Arabic-related projects (2003-2008, 2012-2015). Her interest in the Arabic language, first as a language learner and then for Natural Language Processing, led to funding from the National Science Foundation and Fulbright for research in Morocco, where she eventually settled. She teaches NLP, AI, HCI, as well as basic computer science and programming languages; her research focuses on computer-assisted language learning and readability assessment, resource construction for Arabic and Berber, and information visualization. At AUI she coordinated the Computer Science program, co-led the NECHE accreditation effort, and promoted undergraduate multidisciplinary research. Currently Coordinator of the Center of the Advancement of Teaching, Learning and Scholarship, she is also Assistant Vice-President for Academic Affairs in charge of student and faculty matters.

Peter Goodyear is Professor of Education at the University of Sydney. He is an Australian Learning and Teaching Fellow and an Australian Research Council Laureate Fellow. He was founding co-director of Sydney’s Centre for Research on Learning and Innovation (CRLI). His research focuses on methods for the analysis and design of complex learning environments, professional education and the nature of professional knowledge. He has published 13 books and 145 journal articles and book chapters. His latest books are: The Education ecology of universities: integrating learning, strategy and the academy (2019, Routledge) and Spaces of teaching and learning (2018, Springer), both with Rob Ellis, Epistemic fluency and professional education (2017, Springer), with Lina Markauskaite and Place-based spaces for networked learning (2017, Routledge), with Lucila Carvalho and Maarten de Laat. Peter’s involvement with AI & Education dates back to the early 1980s. He was a founding committee member of The Artificial Intelligence in Education Society when it was formed in 1991.

Richard Culatta, chief executive officer, for the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). Culatta brings vast experience in education policy, teacher preparation, educational technology and innovation to his role with ISTE.


Culatta is a longtime ISTE member and a past recipient of the ISTE Making IT Happen Award.
Prior to joining ISTE, Culatta served as the chief innovation officer for the state of Rhode Island.
As the director of the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Technology, Culatta focused on efforts to expand connectivity to schools across the country and develop the National Education Technology Plan.


Prior to his role with the Department of Education, Culatta served as an education policy adviser to U.S. Sen. Patty Murray. Culatta began his career in the classroom as a high school teacher.
He holds a bachelor’s degree in Spanish teaching and a master’s in educational psychology and technology, both from Brigham Young University.

Seth is a PwC Fellow at the World Economic Forum focusing on AI governance and ethics for children. He leads WEF’s Generation AI project, which aims to leverage AI to educate and empower children while protecting them from risks posed by the technology. Education and EdTech are a strategic focus of the Generation AI project, which promotes education for youth about responsible use of AI and research on leading practices for AI’s use in EdTech and upskilling students with AI skills.


At PwC, Seth is a strategy consultant specializing in the technology sector. He is currently seconded to the World Economic Forum’s Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in San Francisco. He has worked across tech, education, and policy in the private, public, and non-profit sectors. Previously, as a social impact consultant, Seth developed global development strategies for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He also worked in the U.S. House of Representatives focusing on human rights and foreign affairs. A former Fulbright and Watson Fellow, Seth researched education reform in Bosnia-Herzegovina and childhood experiences around the world. He holds a BA in History from Whitman College and MBA/MPA from the University of Washington.

CEO and confounder of EvidenceB, an EdTech startup developing adaptive learning modules for K-12 core knowledge, founded on cognitive science research, reinforced with a double AI engine and co-designed with teachers. He led the Educational Partnerships Program at Microsoft for 12 years, where he initiated the www.classe-immersive.fr and was a member of the steering committee of the Partners in Learning program present in 120 countries. Thierry de Vulpillières worked for several years the educational publishing industry, as managing editor of the electronic schoolbag project (Nathan and Bordas) and editor at Belin. He is an active member of the French-speaking EdTech community: ED21, Afinef, Syntec Numérique, Cap Digital, EdTechFrance and a founding member of Groupe-COMPAS. He is a Knight in the Order of Academic Palms.

Executive Lead

Tom leads operations at The Institute for Ethical AI in Education, and is the primary author of The Institute’s reports. Tom is passionate about education and its role in improving people’s life chances. He began his career as a science teacher, and completed the Teach First programme. Outside of the classroom, Tom served as a programme manager for social enterprise, Team Up for Social Mobility, before joining AIEd company, CENTURY Tech, as a curriculum specialist.

Before commencing his career, Tom studied Natural Sciences at The University of Cambridge, specialising in The Philosophy of Science.