The Institute for Ethical AI in Education

The institute’s response to The Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence (AI)’ published by the High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence (AI HLEG).

We agree with the seven key requirements that AI systems should meet in order to be trustworthy proposed in these guidelines. In particular, we applaud the way in which these guidelines have been designed to be applicable to the wide range of stakeholders involved in artificial intelligence: specifically, developers, deployers and end-users, as well as the broader society. We agree that “developers should implement and apply the requirements to design and development processes”, that “deployers should ensure that the systems they use and the products and services they offer meet the requirements” and that “end-users and the broader society should be informed about these requirements and able to request that they are upheld.” All requirements are recognised as being of equal importance, and the interrelations between all seven are noted.  

However, there are two key challenges specific to education that are not sufficiently recognised within these guidelines.

Firstly, those deploying artificially intelligent systems within education and training settings rarely have sufficient understanding of the technology to be able to ensure that the systems that are being used meet the requirements laid out here for trustworthy AI.

Secondly, there is an enormous and critically underestimated assumption in the statement within principle 1 about Human Agency and Oversight that “users should be able to make informed autonomous decisions regarding AI systems. They should be given the knowledge and tools to comprehend and interact with AI systems to a satisfactory degree and, where possible, be enabled to reasonably self-assess or challenge the system.” This is an admirable statement, but the magnitude of the task of enabling everyone with this knowledge and these tools must not be underestimated. It will take a concerted effort and significant investment in education systems across the world if we are to even scratch the surface of providing people with “the knowledge and tools to comprehend and interact with AI” so that they benefit from these technologies and that they suffer no harm.

Mission

The IEAIED will work to develop frameworks and mechanisms to help ensure that the use of AI across education is designed and deployed ethically. Our strategic ambition is to enable the UK to be a world leader in ethical AI for education. We aim to do this by engaging with a wide range of stakeholders to develop a code of practice that protects the vulnerable and disadvantaged and maximises the benefits of AI across society.

Introduction

To maximise the benefit that AI could bring to education, we must ensure that AI technologies, practices and proponents are aligned with the moral values and ethical principles of a ‘Good AI Society’ (Floridi, 2018). Ethics must be ‘designed in’ to every aspect of AI in education and training from the inception of an idea for an AI product or service to the scaled adoption of that AI within society. Educational institutions and practitioners are responsible for the pedagogical, emotional, physical and moral wellbeing of their students, employees, and the ethical context of these responsibilities with respect to the fast-approaching AI revolution needs much more careful attention.

The IEAIED will identify the assumptions about human behaviour and intelligence that underlie current AI development and innovation. We will consider how social values are currently embedded and manifested in AI design. How ethical frameworks can in future be grounded on responsible innovation in all applications of educational AI. We will also examine how AI in education avoids prioritising undesirable aspects of learning at the expense of other beneficial aspects, which could fundamentally distort the process of learning, and human development.

What will the Institute for Ethical AI in Education do?

We will study best practice in the world today drawing on the work of educational institutions, governments, philosophers, the UN and other relevant bodies.

  • Identify the existing forms of governance, ethical principles, guidelines, standards and regulations relevant to ethical AI in education.
  • Produce a framework for ethical governance for AI in Education for the UK.
  • Produce a roadmap for the development of inclusive, responsible, explainable, interpretable, verifiable and agile ethical governance for AI in Education that will protect people from disadvantage, ill, harm.
  • Build public knowledge and appropriately critical trust in AI in education through public engagement.
  • Demand more from our large technology companies in terms of ethical practice and ethical education and training for educators, trainers, parents and students.
  • Demand support for our Start-up and SME technology community to ensure their ethical practice.
  • Demand ethics training for everyone involved in education or training directly or indirectly.
  • Ensure that ethical AI in education minimises extra burdens to educators, learners, and parents beyond their need to understand what is required for them to protect themselves, their students, their employees, or their family from.
  • Publish an ethical code of conduct for those working to develop and use AI for educational and training purposes.
  • Provide ethical training and approval protocols for anyone developing or using AI in education and training to encourage ethical transparency and publicly ethical practice.

Why is the Institute for Ethical AI needed?

We believe with Stephen Hawking, 2018, that AI, in general, is going to be either the best thing for humanity or the worst thing that has ever happened. We believe we are putting insufficient thought and effort into the ethical applications of AI in general. This is particularly the case in education where remarkably little thought has been put in by government, parliament, universities, schools and educational bodies. The running has been made by the technology companies, for whom ethical and broader societal implications are less important than the bottom line.

The growing volume and diversity of data generated raises ethical concerns about what happens to that data, who owns it, who uses it, for what purposes, and who is accountable for its interpretation and exploitation. Users’ rights to self-determination, ownership and privacy along with the identity of and accountability by anyone who may affect those rights are key considerations that are universally applicable to all types of data generated.

This requires more than GDPR and other form of privacy and data protection.

These considerations are of particular pertinence to systems that use AI in the support of teaching and/or learning, because such systems frequently aim to effectuate a lasting change on their users, e.g. through recommendations, persuasion or feedback, to engender personal relationships between humans and machines, e.g. through use of conversational or emotion-enabled agents, or even to develop a degree of dependency (intrinsic motivation), e.g. through rewards and levels in games. In the case of technologies developed for education (including ITSs, MOOCs, Learning Analytics, socio-cognitive interventions), the explicit ambition is to achieve positive life-long changes that are measurable at behavioural, psychological and, increasingly, deep neural levels. However, as yet, the methods, technologies and ideologies that underpin the generation, analysis and exploitation of interactive systems’ data have not been subject to sufficient systematic and interdisciplinary scrutiny to ensure our full understanding of their potential effects on users, of the associated ethical issues and risks against which we must safeguard.

Data is never just ‘raw’. The decision to collect data is an action based upon a judgement that the data is of value. Data is a value driven entity in its own right and the decisions to collect it must be grounded in sound ethical principles.

The world of AI in Education beyond academic research, where ethical approval must be sought and granted, is the ‘wild west’, with no consistent or effective governance. Both advertently and inadvertently businesses are taking advantage of people in the way that they are building, implementing and rolling out AI.

We need to guard against inappropriate or biased data collection, analysis or interpretation, e.g. as employed in user modelling, provides the basis for systems’ interactive capabilities. By their very nature interpretations have to involve a commitment to particular theoretical or ideological perspectives, e.g. when data is translated into knowledge representations, and these are also inevitably subjective and debatable in nature.

Lack of input to the development of AI for use in Education from those who understand teaching and learning.

False protection promises from large technology companies who wish to constrain users to their particular brand of technology.

Academics are required to seek and gain ethical clearance for anything and everything they do that involves people: they must demonstrate that they will do not harm – this must be extended to anyone and everyone working in education.

Data without context is not merely meaningless, it is potentially dangerous. We will therefore demand that the interpretation of data can only be conducted with data that has been appropriately contextualised.

Timetable

The IEAIED will meet and study evidence, producing an interim report in December 2019 and its final report in 2020.

Founders

Timothy Fr Timothy Francis Clement-Jones, Baron Clement-Jones, CBE, FRSA is a Liberal Democrat Peer. He is their spokesperson for the Digital Economy in the House of Lords. Lord Clement-Jones was appointed the Liberal Democrat spokesperson for Business, Innovation and Skills and Culture, Media, Sports and Tourism in 2015. He also sits on the Built Environment Committee. He is the Honorary President of autism education charity Ambitious About Autism. From 2008 to 2012 he was Chairman of the Council of the London School of Pharmacy and now sits on the Council of University College London. He has been the Legal Director of Grand Metropolitan Retailing and then the Head of Legal Services at London Weekend Television, from 1986 to 1995. He was Legal Director and Group Company Secretary of Kingfisher plc before joining global law firm DLA Piper in 1999. He was Co-Chairman of DLA Piper’s Global Government Relations, the company’s government and media relations practice, for ten years. ancis Clement-Jones, Baron Clement-Jones, CBE, FRSA is a Liberal Democrat Peer. He is their spokesperson for the Digital Economy in the House of Lords. Lord Clement-Jones was appointed the Liberal Democrat spokesperson for Business, Innovation and Skills and Culture, Media, Sports and Tourism in 2015. He also sits on the Built Environment Committee. He is the Honorary President of autism education charity Ambitious About Autism. From 2008 to 2012 he was Chairman of the Council of the London School of Pharmacy and now sits on the Council of University College London. He has been the Legal Director of Grand Metropolitan Retailing and then the Head of Legal Services at London Weekend Television, from 1986 to 1995. He was Legal Director and Group Company Secretary of Kingfisher plc before joining global law firm DLA Piper in 1999. He was Co-Chairman of DLA Piper’s Global Government Relations, the company’s government and media relations practice, for ten years.

Margaret A. Boden OBE ScD FBA is Research Professor of Cognitive Science, University of Sussex, where she helped develop the world’s first academic programme combining AI and cognitive science. She is a Fellow of the British Academy, the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (and its British and European equivalents), the Cognitive Science Society, and the Academia Europaea. She received the ACM-AAAI Allen Newell Award for 2017, a Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society for Artificial Life, and the Covey Prize from the International Association for Computing and Philosophy. Her work has been translated into twenty languages. She wrote the world’s first book on AI as a whole (Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man: 1977), and her latest book is Artificial Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction (2018). In 2019, she will publish a collection of essays on computer art, co-authored with the pioneering computer artist Ernest Edmonds: From Fingers to Digits: Towards an Electronic Aesthetic.

Geoff Barton has been General Secretary of ASCL since April 2017. He is a founding fellow of the English Association and became a ‘Leading Thinker’ for the National Education Trust in 2006. Before serving as ASCL General Secretary, he held the position of Chair of its Pedagogy Committee. He is a Patron of the English and Media Centre. Barton is an active commentator on education and has written for a range of publications including the Times Educational Supplement, East Anglian Daily Times, and Bury Free Press. Barton has worked extensively in school leadership including advising on the initial teacher training programme as Visiting Tutor at York University and contributed to a similar programme at Cambridge University.

Sir Tim O’Shea was the Vice-Chancellor and Principal of the University of Edinburgh from 2002 to 2018. He previously worked as a researcher in the Computer Science Department of the University of Texas at Austin, the Bionics Research Lab at the University of Edinburgh and the Systems Concepts Lab, Xerox PARC, California. His time at the Open University includes founding the Computers and Learning Research Group in 1978, being appointed to personal Chair in Information Technology and Education in 1986, then Pro-Vice-Chancellor in 1993. He has served as Universities Scotland’s Vice Convener from 2009 to 2012, as the Chair of Jisc from 2009 to 2013, as Chair to the Advisory Committee for the ESRC / EPSRC’s Technology Enhanced Learning Research Programme from 2009 to 2013, and as Deputy President of the French Government’s Initiatives d’Excellence en Formations Innovantes from 2011 to 2012. His academic work on computer-based learning, artificial intelligence, and mathematics education includes 10 books, 22 BBC television programmes and over 100 journal articles.

Social entrepreneur Gi Fernando is co-founder and director of mission-driven business Freeformers which employs a 1:1 model, providing digital skills training to both members of large corporations and young people in the community. His previous successful technology ventures include Techlightenment which was later sold to Experian Plc. Freeformers’ projects such as Reverse Mentoring for CEOs demonstrate Fernando’s keen knowledge of adapting modern business to best benefit both new and established workers as well as the thoughtful integration of AI into existing business systems. He has invested in a range of innovative companies like Citymapper, Playmon, and Technology Will Save Us. In 2017 he was awarded an MBE for services to the Digital Economy and in the same year was named the Asian Achievers Awards’ Entrepreneur of the Year. Fernando’s entrepreneurship and investment are directed by a belief in the increasingly intrinsic relationship between profit and purpose.

Sherry Coutu holds a BA from the University of British Columbia, an MSc in Economics from the London School of Economics, and an MBA from Harvard Business School. As an entrepreneur, Coutu founded Interactive Investor International in 1994, which she ran until 2000. As an angel investor, she has partnered with hundreds of entrepreneurs specialising in consumer internet, information services and education. She has worked with LoveFilm and Zoopla and her latest venture, Founders4Schools, encourages student initiative in business. The project highlights Coutu’s dedication to nurturing young entrepreneurship and keen knowledge of data trends. Founders4Schools informs teachers of skills gaps to target based on algorithmic analysis of labour-market adjustments.

Fiona Boulton has had a remarkable career in school leadership and has served as Headmistress of Guildford High School since 2002, after previously serving as Deputy Head for five years. Her commitment to educational progress is evident in Guildford’s designation as a Teaching School in 2013. The school is a member of United Learning and leads the Teaching School Alliance which comprises 42 academies and 14 independent schools. Boulton has been recognised as a National Leader of Education since 2013.

Lord David Putnam is the Chair of Atticus Education. Founded in 2012, the online education venture provides seminars to students globally. As a member of the House of Lords, Putnam is an advocate for digital skills and a variety of educational and environmental issues. He worked as an independent film producer for thirty years and his projects, including Chariots of Fire, Local Hero, and Midnight Express, received numerous accolades from the Golden Globes, Oscars, BAFTAs and the Palme D’Or at Cannes. He was Chairman and CEO of Columbia Pictures from 1986 to 1988 and BAFTA Vice President and Chair of Trustees from 1994 to 2004. He is a Fellow of both the BAFTAs and the British Film Institute. After retiring from film production in 1998, Lord Putnam focused on public policy in education, environment, and communication including an appointment to the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the Draft Climate Change Bill. In 1982 he was awarded a CBE, knighthood in 1995, and in 1997 was appointed to the House of Lords. In 2006 he became a Commander of the French Chevalier of the Order of Arts and Letters. Lord Putnam’s commitment to cultural policy extends to his appointment as the Prime Minister’s Trade and Cultural Envoy to Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Burma in 2012 and Presidency of UNICEF UK from 2002 to 2009.

As Managing Director for Big Change, Essie North has sought positive change for the next generation. Big Change provides grants to innovative thinkers who are creating ways to ensure young people are set up to thrive. She is a qualified business coach with a background in psychology and 10 years experience in CEB. Before joining the organisation in 2014, North worked with socially motivated organisations and entrepreneurs. Throughout her career, North has been dedicated to finding new, meaningful ways to help people thrive.

Ann Mroz has been a strategic member of the Times Higher Education (THE) Supplement since 1994 when she joined as a sub-editor. From there she worked up to appointment as the THE editor in 2008. In 2012, she became digital publishing director of TES Resources where she was quintessential to the transition from newspaper supplement to magazine. In September 2013 she became TES’s editor and the company’s digital publishing director. She is a trustee for the charity Shine and a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. She sits on the board of the Education Endowment Foundation, the Princeton University Press European advisory board, the Education Policy Institute, and Sutton Trust, an education advisory group.

Vivienne Durham has had an extensive career in school leadership with notable advocacy for high standard education for girls. She has worked at The Haberdashers’ Aske’s School for Girls, Godolphin and Latymer, Guildford High School, and South Hampstead High School GDST. From 2004 to 2015 she was Headteacher at Francis Holland School Regent’s Park. During these years, she oversaw numerous improvements to the school’s facilities and a notable expansion in the school’s roll. She became Chief Executive of The Girls’ Schools Association in 2017. Through this, she works closely with Association members to optimise education for girls.

Jim Knight was elected as the Labour Member of Parliament for South Dorset in 2001 and served in this role until 2010. He held a number of ministerial roles, including that of Minister of State for Schools, between 2006 and 2009. Lord Jim Knight is now a life peer. In addition to his work in the House of Lords, Lord Knight is The Chief Education adviser at TES Global- having also been the Managing Director of online learning, at TES- he is the chair and founder of XRapid Group, and he is a visiting professor at London Knowledge Lab, which is based at The Institute of Education.

Alan Winfield received his PhD in Electronic Engineering in 1992 form the University of Hull after which he went on to co-found and lead APD Communications Ltd. He took up an appointment at the University of the West of England in 1992 where he is now Professor of Robot Ethics. He is also a Visiting Professor at the University of York. Winfield’s work in robotics extends to the co-founding of the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, with a focus in cognitive robotics. Winfield has already worked extensively in assessing the ethical integration of robotic technology. As a member of the British Standards Institute, he helped draft BS 8611: Guide to the Ethical Design of Robots and Robotic Systems. He is chair of the General Principles Committee of the IEEE Global Initiative on Ethical Considerations in the Design of Autonomous Systems. He lectures on robotics to both the academic and public sectors. His published work includes ‘Robotics: A Very Short Introduction’ (Oxford University Press, 2012).

Julian Baggini, British philosopher, author and co-founder of The Philosophers’ Magazine was awarded a PhD from University College London, for a thesis on the philosophy of personal identity in 1996. He has since written several books on philosophy and has been widely published in outlets such as the Guardian, the Financial Times, Prospect, and the New Statesman. He has written for the think tanks The Institute of Public Policy Research and Demos.

Ndidi Okezie is Director of Digital and Customer Voice at Pearson. While working in two schools in London, she went from trainee English teacher to assistant principal in ten years. She is a Teach First Ambassador alumna. Okezie is committed to empowering school leadership in order to bring excellent education to as many students as possible. She demonstrated this while serving as Executive Director of Delivery at Teach First where she oversaw Teach First’s programmatic efforts.

Timo Hannay is the Managing Director of School Dash, an education technology company he founded in 2015. Before School Dash, Timo founded and was the Managing Director of Digital Science, which delivers software solutions for scientific research. He has served as the Digital Publishing Director of Nature.com, has been a management consultant at McKinsey & Company and was a journalist for The Economist. Timo graduated from Imperial College with a B.Sc. in Biochemistry and went on to achieve a D.Phil in Neurophysiology from Oxford University. Hannay has been recognised as an innovator in the field of academic publishing, and in 2005 he was awarded the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers award for innovation in publishing. He is currently a non-executive director of Sage Publishing.

Jacqueline de Rojas is the President of techUK and chair of the Digital Leaders Board. De Rojas sits on the government’s Digital Economy Council and is a supporter of the University Technical College in Newcastle. She is also a Non-Executive Director on the boards of Rightmove plc, Costain plc, and AO World plc. She is the co-chair at the Institute of Coding, advises the board of Accelerate-Her, and supports the Girlguiding Association for Technology Transformation. Her accolades include: ‘Computer Weekly’s Most Influential Woman in IT 2015’, Debretts’ 2016 500 People of Influence – Digital & Social, Europe’s Inspiring Fifty Most Inspiring Female Role Models for 2017, the Catherine Variety Award for Science and Technology which she won in 2017, and the Women in Tech Award for Advocate of the Year in 2018. Jacqueline was awarded CBE for Services to International Trade in Technology in 2018.

Geraint Rees is Dean of the UCL Faculty of Life Sciences. He has also served as the Director of the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience (2009-2014), and the Deputy Head of the Faculty of Brain Sciences at UCL (2011-2014). His achievements in academia have led to him receiving the Royal Society Francis Crick medal and have resulted in his election to the Academy of Medical Sciences. His academic research primarily focuses on the neural mechanisms that underlie human consciousness, and he has lead a research group that investigated this topic at the ICN and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. Geraint is also part of the Executive Team of the Francis Crick Institute, and he is on the board of Directors of Imanova.

Robert Halfon was elected as the Conservative MP for Harlow in 2010. After the 2015 general election, he served in a number of ministerial roles, first as a minister in The Cabinet Office and then as a Minister of State in The Department for Education, where he was responsible for Apprenticeships and Skills. During his time in government, Halfon also served as Deputy Chairman of The Conservative Party. In July 2017 he became the Chair of The Education Select Committee.

Dr Saima Rana is state educated and has spent her professional life working to improve state education. Dr Rana is Principal of Westminster Academy, serving one of the most deprived areas in the country where 44% of children are in poverty. 46% of Westminster Academy students have ‘ever’ been eligible for free school meals, 51% of students are pupil premium and 76% of students speak English as an additional language. 20% of students have SEND. With a background in school improvement in inner-city schools, and a PhD in IT in Education, Dr Rana has worked in inner-city London schools with high deprivation indicators throughout her career to combine traditional school improvement techniques with a commitment to collaboration between the local community and businesses in order to accelerate regeneration and standards. Dr Rana specialises in Secondary School Educational Policy, ICT, Globalisation, the Knowledge and Digital Economy. She was an ICT Mark Assessor and examiner for NAACE and was on the working party developing the original Becta/Ofsted ICT Mark and Assessment for Learning reform group. She has presented academic papers on Policy, ICT, Globalisation and Secondary Education at the Institute of Education and Trinity College, Dublin, The Knowledge Lab as well as at international conferences in both Europe and the USA. Dr Rana is also a member of the following boards: The Duke of York Inspiring Digital Enterprise Award (iDEA), International Baccalaureate Schools and Colleges Association (ISBCA), Paddington Development Trust (PDT), and Mosaic Community Trust (MCT).

Kiera is responsible for STEM & Digital Skills strategy in the Department of Education, covering all ages from pre-school through to University. She is also responsible for the Department’s policy on using Education Technology in schools, colleges and Higher Education institutions. Before her current role, Kiera worked on setting up the new regulatory framework for English Higher Education and was one of the architects of creating the Teaching Excellence Framework – the first assessment framework to assess the quality of university-level teaching in the world. She has previously worked in multiple Government Departments, including Cabinet Office and the Department for Business. She has also worked in the private and charitable sectors.

Sir Mark Grundy has been associated with Shireland Collegiate Academy for over twenty years starting as Headteacher in 1997 and becoming the Trust CEO in 2016. The Trust currently manages two Primary and two Secondary schools, with a further one of each under construction and further Primary Free Schools opening in 2020. Shireland has a national reputation for innovation around curriculum design and its use of Educational Technology and has a long-standing relationship with Microsoft. Sir Mark works with the DfE as an appointed member of the Regional Headteacher Board as well as advisory work in relation to EdTech and its national development.

Mark Steed is Director of JESS, a leading international school in Dubai. Before joining JESS in 2015, Mark was the Principal at Berkhamsted School from 2008 to 2015. He has also served as Headmaster at Kelly College and has been the Chairman of the Independent Schools Council Digital Strategy Group. Mark began his career as a Religious Studies and Divinity Teacher and he has served as a Head of Department and as a Housemaster.

Avnish’s career in education began 26 years ago, progressing to her current position as the Headteacher of an outstanding inner-city school in Birmingham. Having previously held the position of Assistant Head- and eventually Head of School – at an outstanding academy within a successful MAT, she has developed her leadership skills within innovative and progressive educational establishments which have nurtured her desire for embracing the ‘bigger picture’ of education as a force for good within society. She sees the potential of school in the future as being a positive frontline for changes in attitudes to the use of AI and the question of safety and risk management.

Billy Downie is Headteacher of The Streetly Academy, Birmingham. The School has developed an international reputation for the innovative use of technologies to drive school improvement. Streetly is one of only 3 UK based Google Reference Schools in the Secondary sector, offering a one-to-one Google Chromebook facility to all students. Billy also served as a member of the Advisory Board at Frog Education, working on the use of technologies to develop pedagogy. Billy has delivered training and consultancy on leadership, sport, technologies and data across the UK, Europe, South-East Asia & Australia. As head of a sports college, Billy is also a non-Executive Director of the Youth Sport Trust and a National Leader of Education, previously serving on the Regional School Commissioner’s Headteacher Board. He is also a trustee of an expanding Primary Multi-academy trust.

Joe Fatheree is an award-winning author, educator, and filmmaker. He has received numerous educational awards over the course of his career, including being named one of the Top 10 Teachers in the World in 2016 by the Varkey Foundation as part of the Global Teacher Prize. He was recognized as the Illinois Teacher of the Year in 2007 and the NEA’s National Award for Teaching Excellence in 2009. He served as the Director of Strategic Projects for the National Network of State Teachers of the Year and was a founding board member of an educational policy organization called Advance Illinois. Joe served on a professional development committee for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and a curriculum advisory committee for ITVS/Independent Lens. He is a Varkey Teacher Ambassador and serves on ASCD’s Global Educator Advisory Committee. Joe was one of six teacher leaders chosen to represent the United States at the 2015 International Summit on Teaching in Alberta, Canada. He is one of the founders of the National Coalition for Safe Schools, which is a teacher-led effort to stop extreme acts of violence from occurring at school. His television work has aired nationally on PBS, The Documentary Channel, Hulu, and the Major League Baseball Network. As a producer, he has received three Mid-America Emmy Awards, two for producing and one for writing. He recently co-authored a book entitled, Adventures in Teacher Leadership. Most importantly, he continues to serve as a fulltime teacher where he teaches innovation in a classroom filled with student imagination, creativity, and a desire to change the world.

Luciano Floridi is Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information at the University of Oxford, where he directs the Digital Ethics Lab of the Oxford Internet Institute and is Professorial Fellow of Exeter College. He is also Turing Fellow and Chair of the Data Ethics Group of the Alan Turing Institute. His areas of expertise include digital ethics, the philosophy of information, and the philosophy of technology. Among his recent books, all published by Oxford University Press (OUP): The Fourth Revolution – How the infosphere is reshaping human reality (2014), winner of the J. Ong Award; The Ethics of Information (2013); The Philosophy of Information (2011). His most recent book, The Logic of Information, has just been published.

Roger Taylor is chair of the Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation. He has worked as an entrepreneur, a regulator and a writer. He has argued for a rebalancing of control over data and information towards citizens and civil society. He is chair of Ofqual, the qualifications regulator and a member of the advisory panel to Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation. His has written two books: God Bless the NHS (Faber & Faber (2014) and Transparency and the Open Society (Policy Press 2016). He co-founded Dr Foster which pioneered the use of public data to provide independent ratings of healthcare. He worked as a correspondent for the Financial Times in the UK and the US and, before that, as a researcher for the Consumers’ Association.

Gayle Gorman was appointed as Chief Executive and HMI Chief Inspector of Education in December 2017. Gayle leads Education Scotland’s staff to deliver the enhanced role set out in the Scottish Government’s Next Steps document and leads both the HMIe teams and support teams at Education Scotland. Gayle has previously had the roles of Regional Improvement Lead for the Northern Alliance Improvement Collaborative, Director of Education and Children’s Services with Aberdeen City Council, Director of Learning at Cambridgeshire County Council, and National Senior Director at the National Strategies, in England. In this role, she helped to shape major educational policies at a national level. In her early career, she was a primary teacher, before she became involved in curriculum development, was an Ofsted Inspector, and led a range of projects within the Department of Education (DfE). Gayle is also chair and Trustee of the Gordon Cook Foundation.